NEWS CENTER

新闻资讯

关注我们,即时了解比较新动态

新闻资讯

  • 太阳能电解海水生成氢气
  • 本站编辑:上孰机电设备(上海)有限公司发布日期:2017-12-28 09:36 浏览次数:

来自太阳的能量比全人类使用的所有能量都要多。想象一下,如果太阳的能量可以用来驱动地球上的能源需求,并且以经济,可扩展和对环境负责的方式来完成。研究人员早已将此视为21世纪的重大挑战之一。

The energy from the sun is much more than all the energy used by all human beings. Imagine that the sun's energy can be used to drive energy needs on earth and do it in a way that is economically, extensible, and environmentally responsible. Researchers have long seen this as one of the major challenges of the twenty-first Century.

QQ截图20171228093427.jpg

丹尼尔·埃斯波西托,在哥伦比亚大学工程化学工程助理教授,一直在研究电解水?水分解成氧气(O 2)和氢(H 2)燃料?作为一种电力来自太阳能光伏(PV)的成可储存转换氢燃料。氢是一种清洁的燃料,目前用于在美国宇航局太空计划中推进火箭,并普遍预计在可持续能源未来发挥重要作用。今天的大多数氢气是由天然气通过称为蒸汽甲烷重整的过程产生的,该过程同时释放CO 2,但是使用来自太阳能光伏发电的水电解提供了有前途的生产H 2的途径,而没有任何相关的CO 2 排放。

Daniel Esposito, assistant professor of Engineering Chemistry Engineering at Columbia University, has been studying electrolysis water. Water is decomposed into oxygen (O 2) and hydrogen (H 2) fuel? As a kind of electric power from the solar photovoltaic (PV), the converted hydrogen fuel can be stored. Hydrogen is a clean fuel. It is currently used to launch rockets in the space program of NASA, and is widely expected to play an important role in the future of sustainable energy. Today, the vast majority of hydrogen is generated from natural gas through a process called steam methane reforming process at the same time, the release of CO 2, but from the way of solar photovoltaic power generation water electrolysis provides a promising prospect in the production of H 2, and no emission of CO 2.

埃斯波西托的团队现在已经开发出一种新型的光伏电解电解设备,可以作为浮在开阔水面上的立平台运行。他的浮动式光伏电解槽可以被看作是一种“太阳能燃料钻井平台”,它与深海石油钻井平台有一些相似之处,不同之处在于它可以从阳光和水中产生氢燃料,而不是从海底采集石油。

Esposito's team has now developed a new type of photovoltaic electrolysis equipment that can operate as an independent platform floating on the open water surface. His floating photovoltaic cell can be regarded as a "solar fuel drilling platform", which has some similarities with deep-sea oil drilling platforms. The difference is that it can generate hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water instead of collecting oil from the bottom.

研究人员的主要创新是分离水电解产生的H 2和O 2气体的方法。比较先进的电解槽使用昂贵的膜来保持这两种气体的分离。哥伦比亚工程设备取而代之的是一种新颖的电极结构,可以利用水中气泡的浮力分离和收集气体。该设计能够以高产品纯度进行高效操作,并且不需要主动泵送电解液。基于浮力分离的概念,简单的电解槽结构产生纯度高达99%的H 2。

The main innovation of the researchers is the method of separating H 2 and O 2 gas produced by water electrolysis. The most advanced electrolyzer uses expensive membranes to maintain the separation of these two gases. The Columbia engineering equipment is replaced by a novel electrode structure that can be used to separate and collect gas from the buoyancy of the bubbles in the water. The design can operate efficiently with high product purity, and does not need to pump the electrolyte on the initiative. Based on the concept of buoyancy separation, a simple electrolytic cell structure produces a purity of up to 99% of H 2.

埃斯波西托说:“没有隔膜或泵,我们的光伏电池结构的简单性使得我们的设计在海水电解方面的应用特别具有吸引力,这归功于其与包含隔膜的现有设备相比具有低成本和高耐久性的潜力。其太阳能燃料工程实验室开发太阳能和电化学技术,将可再生和丰富的太阳能转化为可储存的化学燃料。“我们相信,我们的原型是一个实用的无膜浮动PV电解器系统的靠前示范,并能激发大规模的‘太阳能燃料钻机’,可能产生大量H的2从丰富的阳光和海水燃料,不占用任何空间在陆地或与淡水竞争农业用途。“

Esposito said: "there is no diaphragm or pump, simple structure of the photovoltaic cell we make our design used in the seawater electrolysis is particularly attractive, thanks to its low cost and high durability potential compared with existing equipment including diaphragm. Its solar fuel engineering laboratory develops solar and electrochemical technologies to convert renewable and rich solar energy into stored chemical fuels.  "We believe that our prototype is a practical membrane free floating PV electrolyzer system first demonstration, and can stimulate the large-scale" solar fuel rig ", may have a large number of H 2 from the sun and the sea fuel rich, does not occupy any space in the land and freshwater for agricultural purposes or competition. "

商用电解装置依靠膜或分隔器来分离产生H 2和O 2气体的装置内的电极。电解装置的大部分研究集中在装有膜的装置上。这些膜和分隔器易于降解和破坏,需要高纯度的水源。海水中含有杂质和微生物,可以很容易地破坏这些膜。

The commercial electrolysis device relies on a membrane or separator to separate the electrodes in a device that produces H 2 and O 2 gas. Most of the research in the electrolysis device is focused on a device equipped with a membrane. These membranes and separators are easy to degrade and destroy, and require high purity water. The sea water contains impurities and microbes that can easily destroy these membranes.

该论文的靠前作者,与埃斯波西托(Esposito)合作的博士生杰克·戴维斯(Jack Davis)说:“能够安全地演示一种无需膜片即可进行电解的装置,使我们又迈进了一步,实现了海水电解的可能。“这些太阳能燃料发电机本质上是人造的光合作用系统,和植物做光合作用一样,所以我们的装置可能会产生各种机会来产生清洁的可再生能源。

The first author of the paper, and Esposito (Esposito) cooperative doctoral student Jack Davis (Jack Davis) said: "to secure the presentation of a diaphragm can be carried out without electrolysis device, we make a step forward, the seawater electrolysis may. These solar energy fuel generators are essentially artificial photosynthesis systems, which are similar to plants in photosynthesis. Therefore, our devices may generate various opportunities to generate clean renewable energy.

Esposito的PV电解器的操作的关键是一种新颖的电极配置,包括仅在一侧涂覆有催化剂的网状流通电极。这些不对称的电极仅促进催化剂已经沉积的电极的外表面上的气态H 2和O 2产物的演变。当生长的H 2和O 2气泡变得足够大时,它们的浮力使它们从电极表面分离并向上浮动到单的顶部收集室中。

The key to the operation of the Esposito's PV electrolyzer is a novel electrode configuration, including a reticulate circulating electrode with only a catalyst coated on one side. These asymmetric electrodes only promote the evolution of the gaseous H 2 and O 2 products on the outer surface of the deposited electrode. When the growth of H 2 and O 2 bubbles become large enough, their buoyancy separates them from the surface of the electrode and floats up to a separate top collection chamber.

该团队使用哥伦比亚无尘室将铂电催化剂沉积到哥伦比亚Makerspace的网状电极和3D打印机上,以制造许多反应器组件。他们还使用了高速视频摄像机来监视h的输送2和O 2个的电极之间的气泡,被称为一个处理“交叉”。电极之间的交叉是不希望的,因为它降低了产品纯度,导致安全问题,并且需要下游分离单元使得该方法更昂贵。

The team used the Columbia clean room to deposit platinum electrocatalysts on the net electrodes and 3D printers of Columbia Makerspace to produce many reactor components. They also used high-speed video cameras to monitor the bubbles between H's 2 and O 2 electrodes, known as a "cross" process. The intersection between electrodes is not desirable, because it reduces the purity of products, leads to safety problems, and requires downstream separation units to make the method more expensive.

为了监测H 2和O 2交叉事件,研究人员在其所有的电解装置中安装了窗口,以便在装置运行时能够从电极上获取高速的气泡演变视频。这些视频通常以每秒500帧的速度拍摄(典型的iPhone以每秒30帧的速度拍摄视频)。

In order to monitor the H 2 and O 2 crossover events, the researchers installed windows in all of their electrolysis devices so as to get high-speed video of bubbles evolution from the electrodes when the device was running. These videos are usually photographed at a speed of 500 frames per second (typical iPhone takes 30 frames per second at the speed of video).

该团队正在改进他们的设计,以便在实际海水中更高效地操作,与其他实验室研究中使用的更理想的含水电解质相比,这带来了额外的挑战。他们还计划开发可用于构建更大规模系统的模块化设计。

The team is improving their design in order to operate more efficiently in real seawater, which brings additional challenges compared with other ideal aqueous electrolytes used in other laboratory studies. They also plan to develop modular designs that can be used to build more large-scale systems.

Esposito补充说:“实现可持续的能源未来有很多可行的技术解决方案,但没有人知道具体的技术或技术组合是比较好的选择,我们对太阳能燃料技术的潜力感到特别兴奋,因为巨大的我们面临的挑战是寻找可扩展和经济的技术,将太阳光转换成有用的能量形式,在太阳不发光的时候也可以存储太阳能。

Esposito added: "sustainable energy has a lot of feasible technical solutions in the future, but no one knows the combination of specific technology or technology is the best choice for our solar fuel technology potential excited, because we are facing huge challenges for scalable and economical technology, solar light converted into useful forms of energy, when the sun does not shine, you can also store solar energy.